Read the Report on the role of Victim Protection and Effective Prosecutions here

This is a worth while and enlightening comparative study between services for Victims of Trafficking in the US, Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK, and the correlations to be discovered in the variance of support in relation to the number of prosecutions undertaken through the associated country’s Criminal Justice System (CJS).

The results are promising – the difference in the length of guaranteed support for VOTs, the quality of support  including their ability to work whilst in their country of former exploitation, and the level of co-operation VOTs bring to the CJS to enable the launching of successful prosecutions manifest some significant interconnection.  This is a timely report which should be on every politician’s and CSO’s desk who are advocating for enhanced protection and support for VOTs . Clarity has been brought in this study around a critical dimension of the counter trafficking process, which is currently undermining successful prosecutions of Human Trafficking crimes within the UK.  It has also profound implications for countries not investigated in this report by extension, of the integral relationship between support and prosecutions, demonstrated through a careful piece of research funded by the Winston Church Memorial Fund.

For many victims, part of the recovery process following their escape is to
seek justice and redress through the criminal justice system (CJS). The Code of Practice for Victims of Crime (Victims’ Code)4 outlines clearly and precisely the level of service that victims of crime are entitled to receive. However VOTs have particular needs, which are not addressed by the Victims’ Code or the MSA. Indeed, a recent report from the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring (ATMG) group, which conducted UK based research with government representatives, support agencies, lawyers, NGOs and law enforcement agencies, found that there were two main factors impacting authorities’ ability to mount a prosecution.

The first was inadequate support for victims and the second was lack of resources. Increased funding was promptly identified for law enforcement, however increased funding for victim support has been less forthcoming. In October 2017 reforms of the victim support system were announced by the government however lack of funding remains a key issue in improving support.’

Nusrat Uddin  from the Executive Summary  2018.

Europol’s most recent report on Child Trafficking and Exploitation across the European Union

 To be read alongside our most recent upcoming RENATE report prepared by CCARHT on the challenge of unaccompanied minors in 7 European countries coming soon.








CCARHT undertakes commissioned reports from DG HOME consortia, alongside other independent commissioning bodies. As a Research hub and think-tank we are committed to enabling the best research based resources in people and papers available to our network. These reports are harvested from our practical engagement, desk top reviews, case studies, workshops, forums, dedicated symposia, surveying and field work which make our  commissioned  reports extremely valuable for the wider policy making fraternity, other research hubs, media alongside the wider engaged public to inform their multi-agency embedded work.

We are always available to assist in building  fresh bespoke research with partners on key aspects of countering Trafficking in Human Beings so if you don’t find what you are looking for here, do be in touch with us, and we shall see what we can do to assist.

Reports in 2018  CCARHT symposium the 5 Ts of Trafficking

The Mini white papers emerging from the Cambridge 5 Ts of Trafficking symposium in July 2018 will be made available shortly – looking particularly at

The Law of the Sea the currents of the ‘Mediterranean Humanitarian Crisis’
The challenge for Venezuela – Trafficking consequent to the Economic collapse of a State
Trafficking in relation to ‘ethnic’ purging of a population – the Rohingya and Cox’s Bazaar.
Trafficking as a strategy of ethnic deconstruction and ‘genocide’ – the Yazidis of Iraq and ISIL
Trafficking as Trauma – Papers by Cornelius Katona, Helen Bamber Foundation and Halleh Seddighzadeh,  ARMAN foundation
Virtue Signalling : contemporary Northern Economic commitment to counter trafficking messaging
Reporting Sustainability and Transparency  – the challenge for Transparency in the Supply Chain.
International multi-agency co-operation its role in the fight against Nigerian Organised Crime – the case of NAPTIP
Life beyond Moria? When AID finance moves on, what happens to those left in the camps no-one wants.  Trauma, rehabilitation and citizen integration?
The place of the SDGs – Countering Trafficking beyond the UNODC?
Up up in the Air –  grounding counter trafficking training in the Aircraft industry
A case of Chocolate   bringing production back to the farm gate – a view from Osun State Nigeria
Minors on the Rise: what is happening with unaccompanied and accompanied children in International Trafficking and Migration control.
Blockchain and other Tech: opportunities of the Third wave of tech in countering Human Trafficking crimes.

Cross European Study – for RENATE  2017-2018renate

A substantial 7 country study undertaken across Malta, Italy, Hungary, Netherlands, Slovakia, Ukraine and Albania, focusing on the rising numbers of unaccompanied children, the challenge of delivering rights protection, a mapping of the variety of procedures followed, and numbers being ‘processed’ through varied national systems, will be published at the end of the year.  A consideration of the emergence of the political ‘backlash’ in compassion and rights for those seeking asylum, is included in this report which was commissioned by  RENATE Europe.

RENATE: Religious in Europe Networking Against Trafficking and Exploitation. Originally established by a group of religious representing several different congregations working against human trafficking in Europe. RENATE network with Talitha Qumi the International network of sisters working against trafficking in person. RENATE also collaborates with many other networks within and outside Europe. Networking is considered by the membership of RENATE as a key to unlocking the power of faith-based communities in the fight against trafficking.

Reports in 2017

As a result of an 18 month project working with African diaspora based Behind Closed Doors 2017Pentecostal Churches in the UK, (Central Africa, West Africa with Nigerian White Robed Churches involvement)  with particular attention to London based congregations , CCARHT presented at the House of Lords in 2017 Behind Closed Doors – the first detailed report on how Domestic Servitude, Domestic Abuse, and Sexual Exploitation can operate as a nexus of violence and disadvantage against women, and the presence of powerful counter Trafficking opportunities available amongst faith based communities present in the capital.

Download  Behind Closed Doors Action Research on Women in Modern Day Slavery and Human Trafficking – submitted report

Reports in 2016

CCARHT set a number of young researchers to explore the role of small business in improving population stabilisation, decreasing the supply of vulnerable people into  forced labour. The system interruption mapping on this piece of work, will be incorporated in an upcoming publication.

Several researchers associated with the Centre explored the dynamics of the extension of the Nordic Model – in the prosecution of the purchaser of sexual services.  With the take up of this form of ‘signalling’ from States of a new allocation of the perpetrator Ireland, France, Canada and the Nordic network are under review.

CCARHT is open as a hub of research excellence, to invitations to collaborate on multilateral research projects in any of the main spheres of human trafficking impact.  We would note that CCARHT carries particular expertise in the following areas.

report renate

A mapping across Europe of counter trafficking needs and activities by the RENATE network – seven countries in focus.

This report was submitted to the Vatican in the Autumn of 2016 and has informed a great deal of the understanding and commitment of the Catholic community internationally since.

For access to this report please be in touch with us at the CCARHT offices.



Labour Trafficking and Multi Agency Cooperation  TEAMWORK!

January 2016 saw the publication of the following Report from the Netherlands – in co-operation with a panel of experts gathered from Luxembourg, Slovakia and Malta, whose countries will take on the EU presidency in the periods before and after that now being run out by the Netherlands.

TEAMWORK is a  multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation. The manual is designed to strengthen multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking for labour exploitation, and was commissioned in preparation for the Netherlands presidency of the Council of the European Union in the first half of 2016.

Any who would like to comment on this report are welcome to be in touch with to extend our understanding of what works and what has proved disappointing and in need of development in Multi Agency Co-operation – as we drive forward our own research into deepening early detection and enhanced victim care through co-operative working in the public sector across from public protection, and prosecution services, to public health, employment, business regulators and recruitment services.



Reports in  2015
report of the EFSC

Anti-Trafficking Intervention Programme Targeted to Vulnerable Children
Editorial overview and Introduction

A superb, accessible and comprehensive overview of trafficking and its risks for children in Europe today’   Reinhold Müller, Director, European Federation for Street Children (EFSC)


2015 saw the publication and presentation in Brussels of the resultes of a two year consultation sponsored by DG HOME, responding to the challenges of identifying young people at risk of human trafficking across the European Union.   CCARHT was an expert editorial adviser in this project, and our CEO, Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford authored the Executive Summary, Introduction and partnered EFSC in the oversight of this work.

The resulting EU-transferable toolkit represents an innovative and highly useful practice-oriented manual in particular for social workers and other front line service providers who are involved in the prevention and protection of vulnerable children against trafficking in their daily work.

It contains 3 training modules for service providers working directly with vulnerable children. Significant improvements are offered in the methodologies which are presented in improving organisational capacity in identification, empowerment of first responders, ‘victim care and agency’ and that all important component of late modern bureaucracy and government resource allocation – data collection.

The report contains a training module directly targeted to empower children to avoid high-risk situations for them, and to enable them to self-disclose where they have encountered at risk environments or where trafficking risk is incipient. The toolkit includes practical annexes to be used during the training modules, as well as a useful summary of the relevant international and European legislation on child trafficking.

Participating countries for this DG funded programme were Slovakia, Poland, Malta, Portugal, UK, Italy and Greece.
The research and intervention programme was funded by the European Commission’s ISEC programme in the Prevention of and Fight against Crime

European CrossActors Exchange Platform for Trafficked Children on … Building for Prevention and Sustainable Inclusion” Report on five country co-operation in developing tools for early prevention and detection of heightened vulnerability … 2007-2013 (HOME/2012/ISEC/AG/THB/4000003940)  was presented by CCARHT Managing Director Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford at the Luxembourg Embassy  Brussels in  2014

 Major Sports and Counter Trafficking resilience building   2012

The first of CCARHT’s extended commissioned research work was a comprehensive overview on the preparations for the London 2012 Olympics,london-2012-olympics_copy commissioned by the Legatum Institute in 2010.  The report involved scores of interviews, participant research, focus groups, workshops and expert days to reveal the significance of multi-agency, strategically focused and the generation of clear protocols  to underpin the generation  of as limited a  Human Trafficking risk, and safety of all those involved in the construction of and  delivery of the London 2012 Olympic games. 

CCARHT’s initial draft report was presented to the  London 2London Olympics and Human Trafficking risks012 anti Trafficking Network  which brought together enforcement, not for profits organisations, faith sector alliances, social services, safeguarding children teams  borough council representatives, and the Mayor of London’s Policing and Crime designated team,  in a pro-active programme of resilience against Human Trafficking for the 2012 games.

The report is the first detailed multi sectoral,  counter trafficking strategy document associated with any Olympic Games delivery, and presages the arrival of the Transparency in the Supply Chain legislation which emerged for the UK Government in 2015 as part of the Modern Slavery Act.  For anyone interested in the intersection of Human Trafficking in all its forms and the delivery of a counter Trafficking risk averse Mega Sports Event, this is required reading.  Available on Kindle. 

 Get this onto my kindle. KINDLE UNLIMITEDkindle swim





CCARHT continues to reach into the UN and other international bodies to promote a more pro-active engagement with major sporting events to build resilience in procurement and end delivery processes for these events.

gold coast

This essential close attention to procurement, to training, to awareness raising, and to capacity building for businesses, local councils, governments, law enforcement and those tasked with delivering mega sports events, in order to close down trafficking and forced labour intrusion in the myriad of contracts and activities which make up delivery of these high profile events, is one of the benefits of having a think tank, research hub such as CCARHT.

If you are on the starting grid for Mega Sports bid, or the early stages of delivery, do get in touch. Our team of sustainability, transparency, enforcement, counter money laundering, risk sports and moneytesting, multi agency collaboration and systems researchers, are here to resource you on your journey, and assist you in building the safest Mega sports event that you and your partners can envisage.



Be in touch  with MEGA Sports in the subject line, and we shall be delighted to connect with you, and develop your understanding and strategy for counter trafficking resilience.

label slavery





Significant Reports by Friends of the Centre and Presenters at the
CCARHT Symposia 2016 – 2018  (the Five Ts of Trafficking 2018  day One)

Trafficking in Human Beings Amounting to Torture and other Forms of Ill- Treatment  Occasional Paper Number 5  2013  OSCE Organisation for Security and Economic Co-operation in Europe. Helen Bamber Foundation Part 1

A report commissioned and published in 2013 by the OSCE under the direction of  Maria Grazia Giammarinaro OSCE Special Representative and Co-ordinator
for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings who says this about the outcome in her foreword.

Most cases presented in this paper are cases of sexual and labour exploitation including domestic servitude, and show the common patterns of interpersonal violence amounting to torture. “e victim is detained or kept under the factualpower or control of the torturer; the latter uses this unequal
power relation in order to achieve a certain purpose, be it obtaining a confession or keeping a person in exploitation.It is important to underline, however, that having control over a person does not necessarily mean that this person is
locked up.

For example, repetitive abuse gives the perpetrator regular control and makes the victim feel helpless. “is research shows indeed very well the extent to which
trafficking in human beings is associated with violence and human suffering, such that we can compare it and even consider it to be a form of torture. “is association clearly indicates that THB is not only a violation of human rights, is not only a crime, it is also something whose existence is unbearable, against which it is necessary to mobilise moral resources, as in the case of historical slavery. It also suggests, in my view, new criteria to enhance political will against both trafficking and torture, and new means to provide victims with additional protection such as reparation which includes not only compensation but also rehabilitation and

Maria Grazia Giammarinaro
Special Rapporteur on Human Trafficking

Download the report